A Brief History of Mardi Gras Indians

During Carnival season in New Orleans, the streets come alive with the sounds and sights of the city’s most colorful cultural export.

Mardi Gras Indians in Elaborate costumes parade on Super Sunday in New Orleans.

The Mardi Gras Indians wear elaborate, hand-beaded costumes to parade on Super Sunday in New Orleans.

Mardi Gras Indian

Mardi Gras Indian's intricate costume.

Every Mardi Gras morning, a tradition takes place that is rooted in the deep history of African American New Orleanians. It’s loud, it’s proud and it’s a spectacle that you’ll find nowhere else on Earth. This is the day when the Mardi Gras Indians dress in their finest "suits" and engage in a community celebration of history, culture and art, and all are invited.

You won’t find their routes on any map, and you can’t Google their locations. You'll need to ask a local where they can be seen. The Indians (many of whom are lawyers, doctors, teachers and businessmen on a typical workday) and their entourage wander New Orleans area backstreets in a celebration that makes for an unforgettable experience, both for the participants and the crowds that follow them.

The history of the Mardi Gras Indians is one of challenges and triumph. Traditionally, Mardi Gras krewes (social organizations) were all white and excluded African Americans from their parades and opulent balls. Being part of a krewe has always been an exclusive experience. Some events are open to members and others by invitation only.

So what did New Orleans’ African American community do? They came together to create their own celebrations. 

Mardi Gras Indians and Super Sunday

The Spy Boy leads the procession. Or rather, he comes before the procession, looking out for rival tribes and to let the Big Chief know when he spots them. Tribes will eventually meet in an explosion of color, drumming and dance. Songs and chants begin with the two Big Chiefs.

As much of a spectacle as the call-and-response chanting and dancing are, the centerpiece of it all is the suits - truly works of art. The Mardi Gras Indians take their costume design cues from both Native American and West African traditions, with a distinctly local twist. Thousands of hours, thousands of dollars and thousands of beads and feathers go into each suit, many of which tell stories of African and African-American history in their designs. Many of them take years of planning and preparation to put together. Learn more about Mardi Gras Indians history and music.

If you don’t catch Mardi Gras Indians on Fat Tuesday, you can find them at the second-largest gathering of the year. Dubbed Super Sunday, the event is typically held the third Sunday in March and begins at noon in A.L. Davis Park.

But, don’t worry — you can still see Mardi Gras Indian tradition no matter the time of year you visit. The Donald Harrison, Sr. Museum, located in the heart of the historic 9th Ward, showcases exhibits on the African diaspora, including the Mardi Gras Indians. Learn more about New Orleans' neighborhoods.

Catch the Mardi Gras parades happening throughout Louisiana!